Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Discoveries of the week

It's Tuesday again - time for another round of new discoveries.

Jerzego corticicola
Jerzego corticicola (taken from paper)
A new genus and species of hisponine jumping spider from Sarawak, Jerzego corticicola Maddison sp. nov. are described, representing one of the few hisponine jumping spiders known from Asia, and the only whose male is known. Although similar to the primarily-Madagascan genus Hispo in having an elongate and flat body, sequences of 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that Jerzego is most closely related to Massagris and Tomomingi, a result consistent with morphology. Females of Jerzego and other genera of Hisponinae were found to have an unusual double copulatory duct, which appears to be a synapomorphy of the subfamily. Two species are transferred from Hispo, Jerzego bipartitus (Simon) comb. nov. and Jerzego alboguttatus (Simon) comb. nov.

Not only a new species but also a new genus. The genus of this jumping spider was named after Prof. Dr. Jerzy Prószyński, whose works have provided the first comprehensive view of salticid diversity worldwide. The species epithet is Latin for “bark dweller". The paper also provides a new name combination: Jerzego alboguttatus (used to be Hispo alboguttata).
no DNA barcode (only 28S and 16SND1 were sequenced)

Salmoneus yoyo (taken from paper)
An unusual new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 is described from Sekotong Bay, southwestern Lombok, Indonesia. The holotype and single known specimen of Salmoneus yoyo sp. nov. was collected with a suction pump from a burrow of unknown host, on a seagrass flat partly exposed at low tide. The new species presents three characters on the chelipeds that are unique within Salmoneus: a conspicuous, mesially curved, hook-like process on the distomesial margin of the merus, a row of blunt teeth on the ventromesial margin of the merus, and a series of blunt teeth on the ventromesial margin of the propodus. Salmoneus yoyo sp. nov. also has a characteristic colour pattern consisting of bright red chromatophores occupying most of the carapace surface, except for the frontal and post-frontal areas.

A new little alpheid shrimp named after Dr. Dwi Listyo Rahayu, aka Yoyo for friends and colleagues, to honour her important contributions to South-East Asian carcinology and for organising the seagrass and mangrove survey in Lombok, during which this discovery was made..
no DNA Barcode

Lamprologus markerti (taken from paper)
A new Lamprologus is described from the lower Congo River (LCR) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lamprologus markerti, new species, is readily distinguished from L. tigripictilis and L. werneri, the LCR endemic lamprologines with which it was once taxonomically conflated, in the possession of a reduced number of gill rakers on the first arch (9–11 versus 12–17), a longer head (32.1–34.7% SL versus 29.3–31.9 and 29.1–32.9% SL, respectively), and a longer predorsal length (33.0–35.9% SL versus 29.3–32.7 and 28.5–32.6% SL, respectively). Further, L. markerti lacks a second intestinal loop present in both L. tigripictilis and L. werneri, and has a highly reduced infraorbital series often consisting of a single first infraorbital (lachrymal) element.

I had to include this particular newcomer. For years I bred several Lamprologus and Neolamprologus species at home. Beautiful little fish with very interesting behaviour. In the last few years I was also fortunate enough the get some specimens of cichlid fish from around the world which were barcoded here. One of them we named Lamprologus cf. tigripictilis as it looked very much like L. tigripictilis but we were not entirely certain about its identity. I was looking forward to some barcode sequences that could have help me to put a reliable ID on my fish but the only data available for the new species are cytb and ND2. Given the geographic distribution shown in this new description my guess is that my samples are  Lamprologus tigripictilis. Too bad, I had hoped to use DNA Barcodes to close this case. 
The species was named for Named for Jeffrey Markert whose initial molecular analyses of cichlid population structure stimulated the subsequent morphological study.
no DNA Barcode

Tylopus corrugatus

Tylopus parahilaroides
Tylopus currently comprises 55 species, including three new from Thailand: T. corrugatus sp. n., T. trigonum sp. n. and T. parahilaroides sp. n. A new distribution map and an updated key to all 29 species of Tylopus presently known to occur in Thailand are given. Illustrated redescriptions of all four Indochinese Tylopus species described by Carl Attems are also provided, based on type material.

Three new members of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Tylopus. Intersting group of millipeds that appears to be confined to montane forest habitats living on elevations of 500 m and higher. 

Tylopus trigonum
All the names refer to some characteristic morphological features.
no DNA Barcode

In this contribution a new species of the land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814, from the Neotropical Pacific coast of South America is described and illustrated. In addition to its unique body color, Gecarcinus nobilii sp. n. is distinguished from congeners by a distinctly wider carapace front and differences in the shape of the infraorbital margin. The new species is not isolated from Gecarcinus populations from the Pacific coast of Central America by an insurmountable geographic barrier. Considering the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus as a calibration point for morphological divergence between the trans-isthmian mainland populations of Gecarcinus, the virtual lack of morphological differentiation (other than color) between them and the distinctness of G. nobilii sp. n. suggests that G. nobilii sp. n. evolved from a common ancestor before the Isthmus closed.

The species was named in honor of Giuseppe Nobili, who built the crustacean collection in the Museum of Turin thereby providing important contributions on the knowledge of crustaceans.
no DNA Barcode

A new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species of Rinorea (Violaceae), Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, from Luzon Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the widespread Rinorea bengalensis by its fasciculate inflorescences and smooth subglobose fruits with 3 seeds, but it differs by its glabrous ovary with shorter style (5 mm long), the summit of the staminal tube sinuate to entire and the outer surface smooth, generally smaller leaves (3–8 cm long × 2–3 cm wide), and smaller fruits (0.6–0.8 cm diameter). Rinorea niccolifera accumulates to >18, 000 µg g-1 of nickel in its leaf tissues and is thus regarded as a Ni hyperaccumulator.

Not brand-new as the description came out in May but I picked it because of its unusual lifestyle. It eats nickel for a living, accumulating up to 18,000 ppm of the metal in its leaves without itself being poisoned. Such an amount is a hundred to a thousand times higher than in most other plants. This rare phenomenon is called Nickel hyperaccumulation and it is rather rare with only about 0.5-1% of plant species native to nickel-rich soils having been recorded to exhibit the ability.
no DNA Barcode (but pretty cool)

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