Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Discoveries of the week #32

The Chinese leafhopper species of the genus Scaphoidella Vilbaste are reviewed, and one new species Scaphoidella dietrichi sp. n. is described and illustrated. Two species are recorded from China for the first time: Scaphoidella clavatella Dai & Dietrich, 2011 and Scaphoidella zhangi (Viraktamath & Mohan, 2004). A key based on the male genitalia is given to distinguish Chinese species of this genus and a map provided their geographic distribution. The type specimens of the new species is deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC).

This new species was named after Dr. C. H. Dietrich in recognition of his work on leafhoppers.
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Two new species of Chimarra (Chimarrita) are described and illustrated, Chimarra (Chimarrita) mesodonta sp. n. and Chimarra (Chimarrita) anticheira sp. n. from the Chimarra (Chimarrita) rosalesi and Chimarra (Chimarrita) simpliciforma species groups, respectively. The morphological variation of Chimarra (Curgia) morio is also illustrated. Chimarra (Otarrha) odonta and Chimarra (Chimarrita) kontilos are reported to occur in the northeast region of Brazil for the first time. An updated key is provided for males and females of the all species in the subgenus Chimarrita.

Two new caddisfly species from Brazil. The name of the first one is derived from the Greek word 'meso' for middle, and 'donti' for tooth, referring to a median tooth present in the inferior appendages. The name of the second new species was also derived from the Greek. The is word anticheira, which means thumb, again referring to the shape of a diagnostic structure on the inferior appendages. 
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The collection of the Southeast Asian tree snail genus Amphidromus Albers, 1850 at the Natural History Museum, London includes more than 100 lots of type specimens representing 85 name-bearing types, 9 paratypes and 6 paralectotypes, and one nomen nudum. Lectotypes are here designated for A. cambojiensis, A. perakensis globosus, A. columellaris gloriosa, A. maculiferus inflata, A. lepidus, A. sinistralis lutea, A. moniliferus, A. maculiferus obscura, A. sinistralis rosea and A. sinensi vicaria. In addition, the missing types of A.A. Gould were discovered and their type status is discussed. A complete catalogue of these types, including colour photographs is provided for the first time. After examining these type specimens, two new Amphidromus species, Amphidromus (Syndromus) globonevilli Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. and Amphidromus (Syndromus) principalis Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. were recognized and are described herein.

Again, two new species. this time some tree snails from Thailand. Number one's name is a combination of the Latin word “globous” meaning ball or sphere and the name of Dr. Geoffroy Nevill, who first recognized this as a new species. The name of the second species is derived from the Latin 'principalis' meaning leader and refers to Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand.
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Newly obtained and previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were analyzed to examine the biogeographic assembly of the caenogastropod fauna (belonging to the families Assimineidae, Cochliopidae, and Hydrobiidae) of an isolated spring along the lower Colorado River in southern Nevada (Blue Point Spring). Based on available COI clock calibrations, the three lineages that comprise this fauna are 2.78–1.42 million years old, which is roughly coeval or slightly younger than the age of Blue Point Spring (inferred from local fossil spring deposits). Two of the lineages—endemic Pyrgulopsis coloradensis and Assiminea aff. infima—are most closely related to snails in the Death Valley area (well to the west) and likely colonized Blue Point Spring by transport on birds. A single haplotype was detected in both of these snails, suggesting that they may have only recently colonized Blue Point Spring. The third lineage—endemic Tryonia infernalis, newly described herein based on morphological and molecular evidence—is most closely related to a geographically proximal species in a lower Colorado River tributary (T. clathrata); the split between these taxa may be the product of vicariance (severance of a prior drainage connection) or a separate jump dispersal event. The considerable genetic diversity in T. infernalis (three haplotypes differing by 0.6% mean sequence divergence) suggests a possibly lengthy history of local differentiation. Our findings also identify Blue Point Spring as a new micro-hotspot of groundwater-dependent biodiversity in Nevada and will assist ongoing efforts to protect and conserve these imperiled ecosystems.

The species name of this new freshwater snail species is a Latin adjective meaning hellish, and refers to the Valley of Fire, which is close to the type locality.

Cogia buena
A new species of Cogia A. Butler, 1870, is described from two localities ranging from 1470 to 2000 m elevation in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico; it occurs in cloud forest habitats and appears to be endemic to Mexico. Cogia buena, n. sp., is closely related to C. mala Evans, 1953 and C. aventinus (Godman & Salvin, 1894); these three species are the only known Cogia taxa whose males lack a hair tuft on the dorsal hindwing, and all have similar genitalia. 

A new species of the large skipper butterfly family. The species name is Spanish and translates to 'good Cogia'. The new species was named in consideration of' its apparent sister-species Cogia mala, which is Spanish for 'bad Cogia', although its name is was derived from the name of its country of origin, Guatemala.
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Solanum alliariifolium, Solanum rhizomatum
Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense). Solanum alliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to S. leptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanum rhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to S. pygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide.

Yet another set of newly described species of the huge genus Solanum. The first new name refers to the leaf shape which the collector likened to leafs of Alliaria petiolataSolanum rhizomatum is named for its rhizomatous underground stem.
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