Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Discoveries of the week

Salmo kottelati sp. n., is described from Alakır Stream (Mediterranean basin) in Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Salmo species by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): general body colour greenish to silvery in life; 7–9 parr marks along lateral line; four dark bands on flank absent in both sexes; black ocellated spots few, present only on upper part of flank in individuals smaller than 160 mm SL but in larger both males and females black spots numerous and located on back and middle and upper part of flank; red spots few to numerous, scattered on median, and half of lower and upper part of flank; head long (length 29–33% SL in males, 26–32 in females); mouth large (length of mouth gape 13–19% SL in males, 12–15 in females); maxilla long (length 10–13% SL in males, 8–12 in females); 105–113 lateral line scales; 24–29 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin, 17–19 scale rows between lateral line and anal-fin origin; 13–15 scales between lateral line and adipose-fin insertion.

The genus Salmo is widely distributed in rivers and streams of basins of the Marmara, Black, Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The genus is represented by 12 species in Turkey alone. This description adds another one to this list. The new species is named for Maurice Kottelat, who contributed to the knowledge of the fish fauna of Europe and Asia.
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We discuss 45 Costa Rican species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819, including 23 previously described: E. delliella (Fernald), E. bittenella (Busck), E. festiva Busck, E. scythropa Walsingham, E. perpulchra Walsingham, E. terpnota Walsingham, E. elutella Busck, E. janzeni Powell, E. ungulatella Busck, E. exornata (Zeller), E. phylacis Walsingham, E. mnesicosma Meyrick, E. chemsaki Powell, E. baliostola Walsingham, E. duckworthi Powell, E. sandra Powell, E. nigritaenia Powell, E. catapeltica Meyrick, E. lichyi Powell, E. transversella Busck, E. similatella Busck, E. hammella Busck, E. linda Busck, and 22 new species: E. blaineorum, E. millerorum, E. dianemillerae, E. adrianforsythi, E. stephenrumseyi, E. berndkerni, E. dimauraorum, E. billalleni, E. ehakernae, E. helenmillerae, E. johnpringlei, E. laphamorum, E. petersterlingi, E. lesliesaulae, E. turnerorum, E. normgershenzi, E. nicholsonorum, E. hendersonorum, E. randyjonesi, E. randycurtisi, E. miriamschulmanae and E. tilneyorum. We illustrate all species and their male and female genitalia, along with distribution maps of Costa Rican localities. Immature stages are illustrated for 11 species, and food plants are listed when known. Gesneriaceae is added as a new food plant family record for Ethmia. CO1 nucleotide sequences (“DNA barcodes”) were obtained for 41 of the species.

Another glimpse into the diversity of the Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Of the 45 species of Ethmia found in Costa Rica, 22 are new and described in this paper. For this paper 41 of the Costa Rica species were actually barcoded and sequences can be found both on BOLD and GenBank. Only the taxonomy needs to be cleaned up in both databases. That would also allow the journal publisher to use the full potential of ZooKeys which includes the ability to link from paper to a large number of online databases.

Bivalve mollusk shells were collected in 2350 m depth in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean off northern Alaska. Initial identification suggested the specimens were a member of the bivalve family Thyasiridae, but no known eastern Pacific or Arctic living or fossil thyasirid resembled these deep-water specimens. Comparisons were made with the type of the genera Maorithyas Fleming, 1950, Spinaxinus Oliver & Holmes, 2006, Axinus Sowerby, 1821, and Parathyasira Iredale, 1930. We determined the Beaufort Sea species represents a new genus, herein described as Wallerconcha. These specimens also represent a new species, herein named Wallerconcha sarae. These new taxa are compared with known modern and fossil genera and species of thyasirds.

A new genus and species. The genus is named in honor of Thomas R. Wallerfor his contributions to the understanding of the evolution, biogeography and systematics of fossil and modern marine bivalves. The specie epithet  was chosen for Sara Powell, daughter of one the authors.
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A new tiger beetle species, Cicindelidia melissa Duran & Roman, sp. n., of the tribe Cicindelini, is described from high elevation montane forests of southeastern Arizona and Mexico. It appears to be most closely related to C. nebuligera (Bates) but is distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and geographic range. The new species is also superficially similar to the widespread C. sedecimpunctata (Klug), but distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and habitat. Habitus, male and female reproductive structures, and known distribution map are presented.

A new species of these fast running predators. The fastest Tiger beetle species can run at a speed of 9 km/h, which is the equivalent of a human running at 770 km/h. With about 2600 species a pretty big group that just got another new member named after the first author’s wife. 
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Bellevalia pseudolongipes (Asparagaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Siirt province in South Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Diagnostic morphological characters, a full description and detailed illustrations are provided. It is morphologically similar to B. longipes but easily differs in both several morphological characters and chromosome number. The somatic chromosome number was determined as 2n = 12 in B. pseudolongipes.

A new species from Southeastern Turkey. It is closely related to Bellevalia longipes and sometimes can be found growing together with the former. No proper image for the species as the description is behind a paywall for me. Instead an image of its somatic chromosomes, one of the differences between the new species and its sister species.
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Rotala dhaneshiana, a new species of Lythraceae collected from a semi-marshy area of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. It is closely allied to R. malampuzhensis usually in having trimerous flowers, but differs in having 4-angled, narrowly winged stems, long epicalyx lobes alternating with sepals, obovate-apiculate petals, and absence of nectar scales. It resembles R. juniperina, an African species in having trimerous flowers but differs in having sessile, decurrent-based leaves and sessile pistil.

The specific epithet is in honour of Mr. P. Dhanesh Kumar, Divisional Forest Officer, South Wayanad Forest Division, Kerala who received the ‘Sanctuary Wildlife Award - 2012’, instituted by the Sanctuary Asia Magazine for his valuable and tireless efforts in protecting the forest of the State. 
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