For many people, plants simply fail to garner our concern and affection in the way that many animals do. While we increasingly hear about the illegal trade of elephant ivory, rhino horn and tiger parts, few people will have heard about the illegal trade in hundreds of plant species for horticulture and medicine. Yet, commercial illegal trade is an immediate threat to the conservation of hundreds, if not thousands, of plant species in our region.
Southeast Asia is a widely recognised centre of illegal wildlife trade - both as the source region for species ranging from seahorses to tigers, and as a global consumer of ivory carvings, wild pets, and traditional Chinese medicinal products.
While there are efforts to tackle illegal wildlife trade, the illegal trade of wild-collected ornamental plants, especially orchids still remains undocumented.
Researchers of the National University of Singapore conducted extensive surveys of wildlife markets across Thailand, including border markets with Laos and Myanmar, and identified more than 400 species of ornamental plants in illegal trade, all of which are species widely prized by plant enthusiasts for their beauty, fragrance or rarity. Over 80% of these plants traded at the markets are wild orchids. Some of these were even listed in published literature as threatened. Several of the plant species the colleagues found in the markets are even new to science.
Interviews with traders at the markets revealed that most of them sourced the majority of their plants from neighbouring countries, despite domestic protections and restrictions on international orchid trade associated with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The observed trade volumes and richness of plants illegally traded during the survey also greatly exceeded government-reported trade volumes. Even worse, virtually none of the international trade observed during these field surveys are reflected in official databases, conservation action plans or government policies, even though the trade is occurring openly at public markets across the region.
In this case, we've simply turned a blind eye to plant trade and botanical conservation. This research highlights a common problem in the illegal wildlife trade - the invisibility of trades that have not been researched and are not recognised in official government databases.
Consequently, the researchers call for more attention to protect Southeast Asia's botanical diversity. In their paper, they highlighted the need for more monitoring and enforcement, as well as research to better understand the impact of trade on wild plant populations and everyone involved in illegal trade. They further call for increased awareness of botanical trade among the international initiatives to address wildlife trafficking.